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Core Outcome Set for the Appearance of Facial Aging


Aging (facial)


While aging is not a disease, the physical manifestations of facial aging are often considered as a group, with constituent elements including the visible signs of chronological and photoaging, body image effects, and social impact. As an unwanted condition, facial aging and its manifestations are often treated in an attempt to restore some features of more youthful skin.   Treatment interventions may be topical agents, injectables, laser and energy procedures, cosmetic surgeries, or other treatments.  Since the appearance of facial aging is a category in common use, there is a need for a specific core outcome set to measure treatment-associated changes.

Scope of the intended COS

  • Study types: e.g. RCTs: RCTs or Controlled Clinical Trials
  • Region, e.g. global scope: Global scope


We aim to develop a core outcome set by (1) identifying all current outcomes from a systematic review of literature; (2) involving other stakeholder groups such as other clinicians, and regulators to participate in identifying additional outcomes; (3) conducting Delphi consensus exercises on the identified outcomes; (4) presenting all results from the Delphi exercises during a face-to-face (if possible) consensus meeting to vote and agree upon a core set of outcomes important for cosmetic aging research.

Involvement of stakeholders

Stakeholders, or those invested in the development of a core outcome set, will also be included in the decision process, along with patients. Dermatologists, and industry scientists associated with drugs and devices for treatments of visible appearance of aging are potential members that can provide input regarding what outcomes they feel should be represented. Nurses, physician assistants, and other health care practitioners may be included as well to enhance further discussion.

Current status

Published protocol and completed a systematic review of literature.


Departmental research funds

Involved Countries


Date of updates

  • 10/08/2020


  • Murad Alam, MD

Project team members

Steering Committee:

  • Murad Alam, MD
  • Joseph F. Sobanko, MD
  • Ian A. Maher, MD
  • Todd V. Cartee, MD

Responsible member of Methods group (as assigned by CS-COUSIN)

  • Jamie Kirkham, PhD


Murad Alam, MD (

Published references

  1. Schlessinger DI, Iyengar S, Yanes AF, Henley JK, Ashchyan HJ, Kurta AO, Patel PM, Sheikh UA, Franklin MJ, Hanna CC, Chen BR, Chiren SG, Schmitt J, Deckert S, Furlan KC, Poon E, Maher IA, Cartee TV, Sobanko JF, Alam M. Development of a core outcome set for clinical trials in facial aging: study protocol for a systematic review of the literature and identification of a core outcome set using a Delphi survey. Trials. Aug 1 2017;18(1):359. doi:10.1186/s13063-017-2104-3